**Abstract:**

In k-means clustering, we are given a set of n data points in d-dimensional space R/sup d/ and an integer k and the problem is to determine a set of k points in Rd, called centers, so as to minimize the mean squared distance from each data point to its nearest center.

A popular heuristic for k-means clustering is Lloyd’s (1982) algorithm. We present a simple and efficient implementation of Lloyd’s k-means clustering algorithm, which we call the filtering algorithm. This algorithm is easy to implement, requiring a kd-tree as the only major data structure.

We establish the practical efficiency of the filtering algorithm in two ways. First, we present a data-sensitive analysis of the algorithm’s running time, which shows that the algorithm runs faster as the separation between clusters increases. Second, we present a number of empirical studies both on synthetically generated data and on real data sets from applications in color quantization, data compression, and image segmentation.

#### K-means Clustering History

The term “k-means” was first used by James MacQueen in 1967, though the idea goes back to Hugo Steinhaus in 1956. The standard algorithm was first proposed by Stuart Lloyd of Bell Labs in 1957 as a technique for pulse-code modulation, though it wasn’t published as a journal article until 1982. In 1965, Edward W. Forgy published essentially the same method, which is why it is sometimes referred to as Lloyd-Forgy.Wikipedia

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